This tutorial demonstrates how to use Google Kubernetes Engine (GKE) to expose your web application to the internet on a static external IP address and configure a domain name to point to your application

This tutorial assumes you own a registered domain name, such as
example.com

You can register a domain name through Google
Domains or another domain registrar of your
choice if you do not have one

## Objectives
This tutorial demonstrates the following steps:
## Costs
This tutorial uses the following billable components of Google Cloud:
To generate a cost estimate based on your projected usage,
use the pricing calculator

When you finish this tutorial, you can avoid continued billing by deleting the resources you created. For more information, see Clean up

## Before you beginTake the following steps to enable the Kubernetes Engine API:
- Visit the Kubernetes Engine page in the Google Cloud console

- Create or select a project

- Wait for the API and related services to be enabled. This can take several minutes

-
Make sure that billing is enabled for your Cloud project. Learn how to check if billing is enabled on a project

Install the following command-line tools used in this tutorial:
-
gcloudis used to create and delete Kubernetes Engine clusters

gcloudis included in the
gcloudCLI

-
kubectlis used to manage Kubernetes, the cluster orchestration system used by Kubernetes Engine. You can install
kubectlusing
gcloud:
gcloud components install kubectl
Clone the sample code from GitHub:
git clone httpsgithub.com/GoogleCloudPlatform/kubernetes-engine-samples cd kubernetes-engine-samples/hello-app/manifests
 Set defaults for the
To save time typing your project ID
and Compute Engine zone options in the
gcloud command-line tool
gcloudcommand-line tool, you can set the defaults:
gcloud config set project
project-idgcloud config set compute/zone compute-zone
 Create a cluster
Create a container cluster named
domain-test to deploy your web application:
gcloud container clusters create domain-test
## Deploying your web application
The following manifest describes a Deployment that runs a sample web application container image:
# Copyright 2021 Google LLC # # Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License # you may not use this file except in compliance with the License. # You may obtain a copy of the License at # # httpwww.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0 # # Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software # distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS, # WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied. # See the License for the specific language governing permissions and # limitations under the License. apiVersion: apps/v1 kind: Deployment metadata: name: helloweb labels: app: hello spec: selector: matchLabels: app: hello tier: web template: metadata: labels: app: hello tier: web spec: containers: - name: hello-app image: us-docker.pkg.dev/google-samples/containers/gke/hello-app:1.0 ports: - containerPort: 8080 resources: requests: cpu: 200m Run the following command to create the Deployment: kubectl apply -f helloweb-deployment.yaml ## Exposing your application You can expose your application on GKE using either of the following methods: Use a Service, which creates a TCP Network Load Balancer that works with regional IP addresses. Use an Ingress, which creates an HTTP(S) Load Balancer and supports global IP addresses To learn more about the pros and cons of each method, refer to the Setting up HTTP(S) Load Balancing with Ingress Use a Service To ensure that your application has a static public IP address, you must reserve a static IP address If you choose to expose your application using a Service, you must create a regional IP address. Global IP addresses only work with Ingress resource type, as explained in the next section To use a Service, create a static IP address named helloweb-ip in the region us-central1: gcloud gcloud compute addresses create helloweb-ip --region us-central1 To find the static IP address you created, run the following command: gcloud compute addresses describe helloweb-ip --region us-central1Output: address: 203.0.113.32 .. Config Connector **Note This step requires Config Connector. Follow the installation instructions to install Config Connector on your cluster apiVersion: compute.cnrm.cloud.google.com/v1beta1 kind: ComputeAddress metadata: name: helloweb-ip spec: location: us-central1 kubectl apply -f compute-address-regional.yamlTo find the static IP address, run the following command: kubectl get computeaddress helloweb-ip -o jsonpathspec.address}' The following manifest describes a Service of type LoadBalancer, which creates a network load balancer to expose Pods with a public IP Replace `YOUR.IP.ADDRESS.HERE` with the static IP address:
# Copyright 2021 Google LLC # # Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License # you may not use this file except in compliance with the License. # You may obtain a copy of the License at # # httpwww.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0 # # Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software # distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS, # WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied. # See the License for the specific language governing permissions and # limitations under the License. apiVersion: v1 kind: Service metadata: name: helloweb labels: app: hello spec: selector: app: hello tier: web ports: - port: 80 targetPort: 8080 type: LoadBalancer loadBalancerIP: "YOUR.IP.ADDRESS.HERE" Then, create the Service: kubectl apply -f helloweb-service-static-ip.yaml To see the reserved IP address associated with the load balancer: kubectl get serviceOutput: NAME CLUSTER-IP EXTERNAL-IP PORT(S) AGE helloweb 10.31.254.176 203.0.113.32 80:30690/TCP 54s Use an Ingress If you choose to expose your application using an Ingress, which creates an HTTP(S) Load Balancer, you must reserve a global static IP address. Regional IP addresses do not work with Ingress To learn more about how to use Ingress to expose your applications to the internet, refer to the Setting up HTTP(S) Load Balancing with Ingress tutorial To create a global static IP address named helloweb-ip: gcloud gcloud compute addresses create helloweb-ip --global To find the static IP address you created: gcloud compute addresses describe helloweb-ip --globalOutput: address: 203.0.113.32 .. Config Connector **Note This step requires Config Connector. Follow the installation instructions to install Config Connector on your cluster apiVersion: compute.cnrm.cloud.google.com/v1beta1 kind: ComputeAddress metadata: name: helloweb-ip spec: location: global kubectl apply -f compute-address-global.yaml The following manifest describes an Ingress thata web application on a static IP with two resources: - A Servicewith type:NodePort - An Ingressconfigured with the service name and static IP annotation # Copyright 2021 Google LLC # # Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License # you may not use this file except in compliance with the License. # You may obtain a copy of the License at # # httpwww.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0 # # Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software # distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS, # WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied. # See the License for the specific language governing permissions and # limitations under the License. apiVersion: networking.k8s.io/v1 kind: Ingress metadata: name: helloweb annotations: kubernetes.io/ingress.global-static-ip-name: helloweb-ip labels: app: hello spec: defaultBackend: service: name: helloweb-backend port: number: 8080apiVersion: v1 kind: Service metadata: name: helloweb-backend labels: app: hello spec: type: NodePort selector: app: hello tier: web ports: - port: 8080 targetPort: 8080 The kubernetes.io/ingress.global-static-ip-name annotation specifies the name of the global IP address resource to be associated with the HTTP(S) Load Balancer
Apply the resource to the cluster: kubectl apply -f helloweb-ingress-static-ip.yamlOutput: ingress "helloweb" created service "helloweb-backend" created To see the reserve IP address associated with the load balancer: kubectl get ingressOutput: NAME HOSTS ADDRESS PORTS AGE helloweb * 203.0.113.32 80 4m ## Visiting your reserved static IP address To verify that the load balancer is configured correctly, you can either use a web browser to visit the IP address or use curl: curl http203.0.113.32/Output: Hello, world! Hostname: helloweb-3766687455-8lvqv ## Configuring your domain name records To have browsers querying your domain name, such as example.com, or subdomain name, such as blog.example.com, point to the static IP address you reserved, you must update the DNS (Domain Name Server) records of your domain name You must create an **A** (Address) type DNS record for your domain or subdomain name and have its value configured with the reserved IP address DNS records of your domain are managed by your nameserver. Your nameserver might be the "registrar" where you registered your domain, a DNS service such as Cloud DNS, or another third-party provider If your nameserver is Cloud DNS:Follow Cloud DNS Quickstart guide to configure DNS A record for your domain name with the reserved IP address of your application. If your nameserver is another provider:Refer to your DNS service's documentation on setting DNS A records to configure your domain name. If you choose to use Cloud DNS instead, refer to Migrating to Cloud DNS ## Visiting your domain name To verify that your domain name's DNS A records resolve to the IP address you reserved, visit your domain name To make a DNS query for your domain name's A record, run the host command: host example.comOutput: example.com has address 203.0.113.32 At this point, you can point your web browser to your domain name and visit your website! ## Clean up To avoid incurring charges to your Google Cloud account for the resources used in this tutorial, either delete the project that contains the resources, or keep the project and delete the individual resources Delete the load balancing resources: kubectl delete ingress,service -l app=hello Release the reserved static IP.After the load balancer is deleted, the unused but reserved IP address is no longer free of charge and is billed per unused IP address pricing. Run the following commands to release the static IP resource: If you used a Service: gcloud compute addresses delete helloweb-ip --region us-central1 If you used an Ingress:
gcloud compute addresses delete helloweb-ip --global - Delete the sample application: kubectl delete -f helloweb-deployment.yaml Wait until the load balancer is deletedby watching the output of the following command. The output should not show a forwarding rule that contains "helloweb" in its name: gcloud compute forwarding-rules list Delete the container cluster: gcloud container clusters delete domain-test ## What's next Register your own domain name through Google Domains Explore other Kubernetes Engine tutorials Explore reference architectures, diagrams, tutorials, and best practices about Google Cloud. Take a look at our Cloud Architecture Center.